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Peer-reviewed papers

Peer Journal sample covers

It is BTO’s policy to make public the results of our research. Our aim is to publish as much as possible of our work in the peer reviewed scientific literature.  Many results are also published in our BTO Research Report series.

Kirkland, M., Atkinson, P.W., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., De Jong, M., Dowling, T.P.F., Grummoe, D., Critchley, M. & Ashton-Butt, A. 2023. Landscape fires disproportionally affect areas of conservation priority but only under low moisture conditions. Science of The Total Environment 884 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163849)
Rigala, S., Dakos, V., Alonso, H., Auniņš, A., Benkőe, Z., Brotons, L., Chodkiewicz, T., Chylareck, P., de Carlil, E., del Moral, J.C., Domșa, C., Escandell, V., Fontaine, B., Foppen, R., Gregory, R., Harris, S., Herrando, S., Husby, M., Leronymidou C., Jiguet, J., Kennedy, J., Klvaňová, A., Kmecl, P., Kuczyński, L. , Kurlavičius, P., Kålås J.A., Lehikoinen, A., Lindström, Å, Lorrillière, R., Moshø, C., Nellis, R., Noble, D., Eskildsen, D.P., Paquet, J-Y., Pelissié, M., Pladevall, C., Portolou, D., Reif, J., Schmid, H., Seaman, B., Szabo, Z.D., Szép, T., Florenzano, G.T., Teufelbauer, N., Trautmann, S., van Turnhout, C., Vermouzek, Z., Vikstrøm, T., Voříšek, P., Weiserbs, A. & Devictor, V. 2023. Farmland practices are driving bird population decline across Europe. PNAS View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2216573120)
Fattorini, N., Costanzo, A., Romano, A., Rubolini, D., Baillie, S., Bairlein, F., Spina, F., & Ambrosini, R. 2023. Eco-evolutionary drivers of avian migratory connectivity. Ecology Letters Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/ele.14223)
Clewley, G.D., Thaxter, C., Scragg, E.S., Masden, E.A., Barber, L.J., Conway, G., Clark, N.A. & Burton, N.H.K. 2023. Daily, seasonal and annual variation in area use of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) related to offshore renewable developments. Bird Study 70 : 13-24 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2023.2190080)
Clark, J.A., Gillings, S., Clark, N.A., Cole, K.B., Breese, G., Woods, J.L., Bellman, H.A. & Robinson, R.A. 2023. How important is it to standardise the measured mass of shorebirds weighed at varying intervals after capture?. Wader Study 130 (part 1) Link to Article (DOI: 10.18194/ws.00297)
Eaton, M. Stroud, D. Francis, I, Norman, D, Baker, H., Holling, M. King, A., Stanbury, A. & Balmer, D. 2023. Monitoring five decades of change in the UK’s rarest breeding birds through citizen science: the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. British Wildlife 35 : 335-345
Stroud, D.A., Eaton, M.A., Francis, I.S, Baker, H., Holling, M., King, A., Norman, D., Stanbury, A.J. & Balmer, D.E. 2023. The Rare Breeding Birds Panel: five decades of monitoring the UK’s rare breeding birds. British Birds 116 : 191-209
Defra Science Advisory Council 2023. Highly pathogenic avian influenza in Great Britain: evaluation and future actions. Defra Science Advisory Council Report Defra View Abstract
Havinga, I., Marcos, D., Bogaart, P., Massimino, D., Hein, L. & Tuia, D 2023. Social media and deep learning reveal specific cultural preferences for biodiversity. People and Nature 5 : 981-998 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1002/pan3.10466)
Evans, L.C., Melero, Y., Schmucki, S., Boersch-Supan, P.H., Brotons, L., Fontaine, C., Jiguet, F., Kuussaari, M., Massimino, D., Robinson, R.A., Roy, D.B., Schweiger, O., Settele, J., Stefanescu, C., van Turnhout, C.A.M. & Oliver, T.H. 2023. A niche-based approach for evaluating the mechanisms of community stability in butterfly communities across three countries. Global Change Biology 29 : 3 271-3 284 View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/gcb.16684)
Martay, B., Leech, D.I., Shortall, C.R., Bell, J.R., Thackeray, S.J., Hemming, D.L. & Pearce-Higgins, J.W 2023. Aerial insect biomass, but not phenological mismatch, is associated with chick survival of an insectivorous bird. Ibis Link to Article (DOI:
Green, R.E., Taggart, M.A., Pain, D.J., Clark, N.A., Clewley, L., Cromie, R., Green, R.M.W., Guiu, M., Huntley, B., Huntley, J., Leslie, R., Porter, R., Roberts, J., Robinson, J.A., Robinson, R.A., Sheldon, R., Smith, K.W., Smith, L., Spencer, J. & Stroud, D. 2023. Limited effectiveness of actions intended to achieve a voluntary transition from the use of lead to non-lead shotgun ammunition for hunting in Britain. Conservation Evidence Journal 20 : 1-7 Link to Article (DOI: 10.52201/CEJ20/OQWU5273)
Vickery, J.A., Mallord, J.W., Adams, W.M., Beresford, A.E., Both, C., Cresswell, W., Diop, N., Ewing, S.R., Gregory, R.D., Morrison, C.A., Sanderson, F.J., Thorup, C., Van Wijk, R.E. & Hewson, C.M 2023. The conservation of Afro-Palaearctic migrants: what we are learning and what we need to know. Ibis View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/ibi.13171)
Barnes, A.E., Robinson, R.A. & Pearce-Higgins, J.W. 2023. Collation of a century of soil invertebrate abundance data suggests long-term declines in earthworms but not tipulids. PLOS ONE Link to Article (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0282069)
Barton, M.G., Henderson, I., Border, J.A. & Siriwardena, G.M. 2023. A review of the impacts of air pollution on terrestrial birds. Science of The Total Environment 873 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162136)
Cooper, J.E.J., Plummer, K.E. & Siriwardena, G.M. 2023. Using species-habitat models to predict bird counts from urban development plans. Landscape and Urban Planning 230 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2022.104629)
Cooper, J.E.J., Garcia-del-Rey, E. & Lachlan, R.F. 2023. Evolution of female song and duetting in the Chaffinch (Fringilla) species complex. Journal of Avian Biology Link to Article (DOI:
Maskell, L., Alison, J., Forbes, N., Jarvis, S., Robinson, D., Siriwardena, G., Wood, C. & Smart, S. 2023. Inconsistent relationships between area, heterogeneity and plant species richness in temperate farmed landscapes. Oikos Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/oik.09720)
Pearce-Higgins, J.W. & Morris, R.K.A. 2023. Declines in invertebrates and birds – could they be linked by climate change?. Bird Study View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2022.2157373)
Sharps, E., Hawkes, R., Bladon, A., Buckingham, D., Border, J., Morris, A., Grice, P. & Peach, W. 2023. Reversing declines in farmland birds: how much agri-environment provision is needed at farm and landscapes scales?. Journal of Applied Ecology Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14338)
Ewing, H., Franks, S., Smart, J., Burton, N. & Gill, J.A. 2022. Nest survival of threatened Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) breeding at low densities across a human-modified landscape. Ibis Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/ibi.13180)
Hunt, M.L., Blackburn, G.A., Siriwardena, G.M., Carrasco, L. & Rowland, C.S. 2022. Using satellite data to assess spatial drivers of bird diversity. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Link to Article (DOI: 10.1002/rse2.322)
Gargallo, G., Davies, J.G., Faverjon, C., Kampichler, C., Baillie, S.R., Cameron, A., Robinson, R.A. & Sierdsema H. 2022. Development of a prototype early warning system for avian influenza in the EU based on risk-mapping. EFSA Supporting Publications 19 (part 12) European Food Safety Agency Link to Article (DOI: 10.2903/sp.efsa.2022.EN-7762)
Dufour, P., Åkesson, S., Hellström, M., Hewson, C., Lagerveld, S., Mitchell, L., Chernetsov, N., Schmaljohann, H. & Crochet, P-A. 2022. The Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) as a model to understand the mechanisms of vagrancy and its potential significance for the evolution of new migratory routes. Movement Ecology View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1186/s40462-022-00345-2)
Bowgen, K.M., Dodd, S.G., Lindley, P., Burton, N.H.K. & Taylor, R.C. 2022. Curves for Curlew: Identifying Curlew breeding status from GPS tracking data. Ecology and Evolution 12 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1002/ece3.9509)
Wade, D., Ashton-Butt, A., Scott, G., Reid, S., Coward, V., Hansen, R.D.E., Banyard, A.C. & Ward, A. 2022. High pathogenicity avian influenza: Targeted active surveillance of wild birds to enable early detection of emerging disease threats. Epidemiology & Infection View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1017/S0950268822001856)
Barnes, A.E., Davies, J.G., Martay, B., Boersch-Supan, P. H., Harris, S.J., Noble, D.G., Pearce-Higgins, J.W. & Robinson, R.A. 2022. Rare and declining bird species benefit most from designating protected areas for conservation in the UK. Nature Ecology & Evolution Link to Article (DOI: 10.1038/s41559-022-01927-4)
Sanderson, F.J., Wilson, J.D., Franks, S.E. & Buchanan, G.M. 2022. Benefits of protected area networks for breeding bird populations and communities. Animal Conservation Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/acv.12832)
Clewley, G.D., Cook, A.S.C.P., Davies, J.G., Humphreys, E.M., O’Hanlon, N.J., Weston, E., Boulinier, T. & Ponchon, A 2022. Acute impacts from Teflon harnesses used to fit bio-logging devices to Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Ringing & Migration Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2022.2151065)
Sutherland, W.J. Bennett, C., Brotherton, P.N.M., Butterworth, H.M., Clout, M.N., Côté, I.M., Dinsdale, J., Esmail, N., Fleishman, E., Gaston, K.J., Herbert-Read, J.E., Hughes, A., Kaartokallio, H., Le Roux, X., Lickorish, F.A., Matcham, W., Noor, N.,Palardy, J.E., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Peck, L.S., Pettorelli, N., Pretty, J., Scobey, R., Spalding, M.D., Tonneijck, F.H., Tubbs, N., Watson, J.E.M., Wentworth, J.E., Wilson, J.D. & Thornton, A. 2022. A global biological conservation horizon scan of issues for 2023. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 38 : 96-107 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2022.10.005)
Croll, D.A., Ellis, A.A., Adams, J., Cook, A.S.C.P., Garthe, S., Goodale, M.W., Hall, C.S., Hazen, E., Keitt, B.S., Kelsey, E.C., Leirness, J.B., Lyons, D.E., McKown, M.W., Potiek, A., Searle, K.R., Soudijn, F.H., Rockwood, R.C., Tershy, B.R., Tinker, M., VanderWerf, E.A., Williams, K.A., Young, L. & Zilliacus, K. 2022. Framework for assessing and mitigating the impacts of offshore wind energy development on marine birds. Biological Conservation 276 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109795)
Hanmer, H.J., Dadam, D. & Siriwardena, G.M. 2022. Evidence that rural wintering populations supplement suburban breeding populations. Bird Study View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2022.2139814)
Mander, L., Nicholson, I., Green, R., Dodd, S., Forster, R. & Burton, N. 2022. Individual, sexual and temporal variation in the winter home range sizes of GPS-tagged Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata. Bird Study Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2022.2144129)
Fandos, G., Talluto, M., Fielder, W., Robinson, R.A., Thorup, K. & Zurell, D. 2022. Standardised empirical dispersal kernels emphasise the pervasiveness of long-distance dispersal in European birds. Journal of Animal Ecology Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.13838 )
Burgess, M., Castello, J., Davis, T. & Hewson, C. 2022. Loop-migration and non-breeding locations of British breeding Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Bird Study 69 : 1-11 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2022.2138825)
Turner, R.K., Griffiths, R.A., Wilkinson, J.W., Julian, A., Toms, M.P. & Isaac, N.J.B. 2022. Diversity, fragmentation and connectivity in the UK amphibian and reptile data landscape. Biodiversity & Conservation View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1007/s10531-022-02502-w)
Cunningham, E.J.A., Amandine Gamble, A., Hart, T., Humphreys, E.M., Philip, E., Tyler, G. & Wood, M.J. 2022. The incursion of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) into North Atlantic seabird populations: an interim report from the 15th International Seabird Group conference. Seabird 34 View Abstract
Finch, T., Bell, J.R., Robinson, R.A. & Peach, W.J. 2022. Demography of Common Swifts Apus apus breeding in the UK associated with local weather but not aphid abundance. Ibis Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/ibi.13156)
Martino, S., Kenter, J.O., Albers, N., Whittingham, M.J., Young, D.M., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Martin-Ortega, J., Glenk, K. & Reed, M.S. 2022. Trade-offs between the natural environment and recreational infrastructure: a case study about peatlands under different management scenarios. Land Use Policy View Abstract Link to Article (DOI:
Broughton, R.K., Searle, K.R., Walker, L.A., Potter, E.D., Glória Pereira, M., Carter, H., Sleep, D., Noble, D.G., Butler, A. & Johnson, A.C. 2022. Long-term trends of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) show widespread contamination of a bird-eating predator, the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) in Britain. Environmental Pollution 314 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120269)
Guilherme, J.L., Jones, V.R., Catry, I., Beal, M., Dias, M.P., Oppel, S., Vickery, J.A., Hewson, C.M., Butchart, S.H.M. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2022. Connectivity between countries established by landbirds and raptors migrating along the African-Eurasian flyway. Conservation Biology Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/cobi.14002)
Hanmer, H.J., Cunningham, A.A., John, S.K., Magregor, S.K., Robinson, R.A., Seilern-Moy, K., Siriwardena, G.M. & Lawson, B. 2022. Habitat-use influences severe disease-mediated population declines in two of the most common garden bird species in Great Britain. Scientific Reports 12 Link to Article (DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-18880-8)
Jarrett, D., Calladine, J., Cook, A.S.C.P., Upton, A., Williams, J.,Williams, S., Wilson, J.M., Wilson, M.W., Woodward, I. & Humphreys, E.M. 2022. Behavioural responses of non-breeding waterbirds to marine traffic in the near-shore environment. Bird Study Link to Article (DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2022.2113855)
Ward, C.V., Heydon, M., Lakin, I., Sullivan, A.J. & Siriwardena, G.M. 2022. Breeding bird population trends during 2013–2019 inside and outside of European Badger control areas in England. Journal of Zoology View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/jzo.13010)
Hanmer, H.J., Boersch-Supan, P.H. & Robinson, R.A. 2022. Differential changes in life cycle-event phenology provide a window into regional population declines. Biology Letters Link to Article (DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2022.0186)
Redhead, J.W., Hinsley, S.A., Botham, M.S., Broughton, R.K., Freeman, S.N., Bellamy, P.E., Siriwardena, G., Randle, Z., Nowakowski, M., Heard, M.S. & Pywell, R.F. 2022. The effects of a decade of agri-environment intervention in a lowland farm landscape on population trends of birds and butterflies. Journal of Applied Ecology Link to Article (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14246)
Connors, M.G., Sinnon, N.B., Agamboue, P.D., Atkinson, P.W., Bayliss, A., Benson, S.R., Block, B.A., Bograd, S.J., Bordino, B., Bowen, D., Brickle, P., Bruno, I., Carman, V.G., Champagne, C.D., Crocker, D., Costa, D.P., Dawson, T.M., Deguchi, T., Dewar, H., Doherty, P.D., Eguchi, T., Formia, A., Godley, B.J., Graham, R.T., Gredzens, C., Hart, K.M., Hawkes, L.A., Henderson, S. Henry, W., Hückstädt, L.A., Irvine, L., Kienle, S., Kuhn, C.E., Lidgard, D., Loredo, S.A., Mate, B., Metcalfe, K., Nzegoue, J., Oliwina, C.K.K., Orben, R.A., Ozaki, K., Parnell, R., Pike, E.P., Robinson, P.,. Rosenbaum, H., Sato, S., Shaffer, S.A., Shaver, D.J., Simmons, S.E., Sisson, N.B., Smith, B.J., Sounguet, G.P., Suryan, R., Thompson, D.R., Tierney, M., Tilley, D., Young, H.S., Warwick-Evans, V., Weise, M.J., Wells, R.S., Wilkinson, B.P., Witt, M.J. & Maxwell, S.M. 2022. Mismatches in scale between highly mobile marine megafauna and marine protected areas. Frontiers in Marine Science Link to Article (DOI: /10.3389/fmars.2022.897104)
Booth Jones, K.A., O’Connell, P., Wolsey, S., Carrington-Cotton, A., Noble, D.G., McCulloch, N. & Calladine, J.R. 2022. Loss of breeding waders from key lowland grassland sites in Northern Ireland. Irish Birds 44 : 11-22
Caliendo. V., Lewis, N.S., Pohlmann, A., Baillie, S.R., Banyard, A.C., Beer, M., Brown, I.H., Fouchier, R.A.M., Hansen, R.D.E., Lameris, T.K., Lang, A.S., Laurendaeu, S., Lung, O., Robertson, G., van der Jeugd, H., Alkie, T.N., Thorup, K., van Toor, M.L., Waldenstrom, J., Yason, C., Kuiken, T. & Berhane, Y. 2022. Transatlantic spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wild birds from Europe to North America in 2021. Scientific Reports 12 View Abstract Link to Article (DOI: /10.1038/s41598-022-13447-z)