Monitoring landscape-scale environmental changes with citizen scientists: Twenty years of land use change in Great Britain

Crested Tit - Sarah Kelman

Author(s): Martay, B., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Harris, S.J. & Gillings, S.

Published: July 2018

Journal: Journal for Nature Conservation Volume: 44

Digital Identifier No. (DOI): 10.1016/j.jnc.2018.03.001

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Citizen science is increasingly recognised as one of the most cost-effective means of achieving large-scale and long-term biodiversity monitoring. We’re quite familiar with this concept for birds and butterflies, but what about for habitat? Historically, changes in habitat or land cover in the UK have been recorded through two main approaches: professional field data collection and remote sensing using satellites. Both have major limitations: field surveys are costly and can only cover small areas, whereas remote sensing can cover the whole country but with less detail and greater uncertainties.

BTO scientists were keen to see if habitat data collected by volunteers for the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) could contribute to understanding how habitats have changed. Over 2,500 BBS volunteers have recorded the habitats along their survey transects since 1994, from city centres to mountain tops.


These data were used to quantify change over time in the reporting of different habitats in the British countryside. Increases in woodland cover were detected, in particular, mixed woodland, and declines in farmland cover, particularly livestock farming were also found. Whilst the estimate of habitat area matched existing data well, estimates of habitat change did not. 


These results are encouraging considering that habitat recording on BBS was not designed for the purpose of habitat monitoring. This work shows that volunteers can play a significant role in monitoring of habitats provided clear protocols are followed that have been designed with habitat monitoring in mind.

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