Ockendon, N., Davis, S.E., Miyar, T. & Toms, M.P. (2009)
Bird Study 56: 405-410
The arrival patterns of birds at garden feeding stations were investigated through a survey carried out on the Shortest Day 2004. Garden birdwatchers recorded the time of first arrival of each bird species visiting their feeding station after dawn. Examination of the pattern of arrivals revealed that birds appeared at garden feeding stations later in the morning in urban areas and than in rural areas during winter. This supports the hypothesis that heat pollution may reduce overnight energy costs in small birds in urban areas, thereby reducing the urgency for them to 'refuel' first thing in the morning.