Avian flu

Confirmed cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the strain H5N8 show a broad geographical spread across Great Britain and Northern Ireland in wild bird populations. The Animal and Plant Health Agency publishes weekly updates of wild bird cases of avian flu. Cases so far have been found in many species of waterbirds, including multiple cases of Wigeon, Mute Swan and Pochard, and in Peregrine Falcon and Buzzard.

Please use the Defra or DAERA helpline (see "What To Do" below) to report any wild bird die-offs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and refer to the latest government information.

Avian Influenza Prevention Zones requiring that poultry and captive birds be kept separate from wild birds are in place in Northern Ireland, England, Wales and Scotland until 28th February. When infections are identified in captive birds, ringing is locally suspended (see "Advice for Ringers" below).

Up-to-date information

General government guidance on avian influenza can be found at: www.gov.uk/avian-influenza-bird-flu for England, www.gov.scot/avianinfluenza for Scotland, http://gov.wales/topics/environmentcountryside/ahw/disease/avianflu/?lang=en for Wales and https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/articles/avian-influenza-ai for Northern Ireland.

The latest information from Defra and the Animal and Plant Health Agency on the current outbreaks in poultry, captive and wild birds in Europe can be found at: gov.uk/government/publications/avian-influenza-bird-flu-in-europe

What to do

Birdwatchers can be of great assistance in staying alert for unusual cases of mortality or sickness in wild birds. If you notice unusual mortality in Great Britain, i.e. five or more wild birds dead in the same location, you should report them by calling the Defra helpline on 03459 33 55 77 (Mon-Fri 8am to 6pm) and selecting option 1, or by emailing defra.helpline [at] defra.gsi.gov.uk.In Northern Ireland such wild bird mortality incidents should be reported to the DAERA Helpline: 0300 200 7840.

Reports are also encouraged when a single dead wild duck, wild goose, swan or gull is found. Not all birds may be picked up for testing, but collating this information may reveal patterns of mortality.

It should be stressed that HPAI is a disease of birds. It is of great concern for the poultry industry but does not appear to be a major issue for human health in the UK. Whilst deaths have occurred in other countries, the numbers of cases have been very low and have been confined to people in very close contact to infected poultry. The advice is that there is no danger from eating well-cooked poultry and there is certainly no danger from normal birdwatching activities. Sensible basic hygiene should be used if you do come into closer contact with birds.

Feeding birds

It is extremely unlikely that bird flu could be transmitted to people by feeding birds in the garden. The H5N8 strain of bird flu currently present in the UK wild bird population has never transferred to humans.

Birds carry a variety of diseases, such as salmonella. The single most important action we can take, to protect both the birds that feed in our gardens and ourselves, is to follow hygiene guidelines. In all circumstances, after handling bird feeders, cleaning bird baths or feeding birds, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Bird feeders should be washed and cleaned regularly to prevent spread of diseases such as salmonella. This should be done outside in your garden with dilute disinfectant (normal household bleach diluted 1:20).

Note that the Avian Influenza prevention zones currently covering the whole of Great Britain and Northern Ireland require that those who keep captive birds, for example poultry or ducks, should keep them separate from wild birds; particularly by reducing the chance that food or water for captive birds might become contaminated. 

Advice for Ringers

Ringers have been issued with more detailed guidance (PDF, 446.84 KB).

Ringing should be suspended within any 10km Surveillance Zones where these are put in place around infected premises. The location of these zones can be seen on the government’s interactive map. Local ringers will be informed by BTO when zones are put in place and lifted. Ringing suspensions are not currently introduced around cases of dead wild birds which test positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza. 

During the prolonged outbreak this winter, we suggest that ringers carefully consider their activities, especially the provision of food, around any poultry units and be mindful of concerns raised by local landowners.

What do I do if I find a dead bird?

Many thousands of birds die every week of natural causes and so it is not unusual to occasionally find dead birds. If, however, you find five or more dead wild or garden birds together in the same place and you are suspicious of the cause of death, do not touch the birds and contact Defra using the details above. This is particularly important for species like waterfowl. Death or illness in garden birds can also be reported to the Garden Wildlife Health project.

Where possible, avoid directly touching any dead birds. If you move a dead bird (e.g. if a cat brings one into your house or you need to check if it is ringed), invert a plastic bag over your hand and pick the bird up in the plastic. If the bird is ringed, report the ring details to the BTO (www.ring.ac), then draw the bag over your hand and tie it up and dispose of it in your usual household waste, then wash your hands with soap and water. 

Previous Updates

Avian Influenza update: 6 February 2017

H5N8 has been confirmed in a Swan in Northern Ireland.

Avian Influenza update: 23 December 2016

In addition to the Wigeon in South Wales, H5N8 has been confirmed in Wigeon in England (Leicestershire and Somerset) and a Peregrine Falcon in Scotland. 

Avian Influenza update: 22 December 2016

The first case in a wild bird of H5N8 has been confirmed in Great Britain, in a Wigeon found dead at Llanelli in Wales.

Avian Influenza update: 17 December 2016

HPAI H5N8 has been confirmed in turkeys on a poultry farm near Louth in Lincolnshire.

Avian Influenza update: 7 December 2016

Infections of H5N8 HPAI in wild, captive or domestic birds have now been reported in 14 countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. As a precautionary measure Avian Influenza Prevention Zones have been put in place in England, Scotland and Wales requiring that poultry and captive birds be kept separate from wild birds.

Avian Influenza Update: 11 November 2016

Eight countries in Europe have reported detections of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), between 3rd and 11th November 2016.These outbreaks are reported to have affected various waterbird species including Tufted Duck, Coot, Pochard, gulls, geese and swans. None of the outbreaks were in the UK but the risk to the UK of the incursion of a wild bird infected with H5N8 HPAI in the coming weeks is considered to have significantly increased to medium from low.

Further information will be provided as it becomes available.