Scientific publications

The BTO Nest Record Scheme started life as the ‘Hatching and Fledging Enquiry’ set up by Sir Julian Huxley and James Fisher in 1939. The first studies mainly concentrated on gathering the basic facts about the breeding biology of British birds, including Willow Warbler, Treecreeper and Ring Ouzel.

More recently, NRS data have been used to determine the factors responsible for influencing the breeding success of a wide range of species and, together with information from other BTO surveys, to explore the relationship between productivity and population size. The following is a list of published papers that have utilised Nest Record Scheme data.

ADAMS, L.E.G. (1957) Nest records of the Swallow. Bird Study, 4: 28-33

AEBISCHER, N.J. (1999) Multi-way comparisons and generalized linear models of nest success: extensions of the Mayfield method. Bird Study, 46 (suppl.): S22-31.

(ALEXIADES, M (1984): Two aspects of the breeding ecology of the Wood Warbler. Unpbl. BSc Project Report. Environmental Sciences Dept., Southampton University.)

ANON (1990) Nest Record Cards. Hughenden Ringing Group Rep. 1988-89.

ANON (1991) Nest Record Cards. Hughenden Ringing Group Rep. 1990.

ARMSTRONG, E.A. (1955) The Wren. London

AUSTIN, G.E. & CRICK, H.Q.P. (1994). Breeding Phenology of Curlew. BTO Res. Rep. 134, 22 pp. BTO, Thetford.

BAILISS, M. (1994) Cuckoo-Reed Warbler Study 1983-92 (an appraisal). Unpbl. Rep.

BAILLIE, S.R. (1988) Final report of the Nest Record Scheme Technical Review Group. BTO report. BTO, Tring.

BAILLIE, S.R. (1990) Integrated population monitoring of breeding birds in Britain and Ireland. Ibis 132: 151-166.

BAILLIE, S.R. (1991) Monitoring terrestrial breeding bird populations. In Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology (ed. Goldsmith F.B.) pp.112-132. Chapman & Hall, London.

BAILLIE, S.R. & PEACH, W.J. (1992) Population limitation in Palaearctic-African migrant passerines. Ibis, 134 Suppl. 1: 120-132.

BAILLIE, S.R., CRICK, H.Q.P. & PEACH, W.J. (1993) IPM - a new approach to identifying conservation problems. In Britain's Birds in 1990-91 (eds Andrews, J. & Carter, S.P.) pp.38-43. JNCC/BTO, Peterborough.

BAILLIE, S.R., SUTHERLAND, W.J., FREEMAN, S.N., GREGORY, R.D. & PARADIS, E. (2000) Consequences of large-scale processes for the conservation of bird populations.
J. Appl. Ecol. 37 (Suppl.1): 88-102.

BAINES, D. (1990) Black Grouse densities and habitat requirements: Game Conserv. Ann. Rev, 21: 136-8.

BAINES, D. (1991) Factors contributing to local and regional variation in Black Grouse breeding success in northern Britain. Orn. Scand. 22: 264-269.

BATTEN, L.A. (1973) Population dynamics of suburban Blackbirds. Bird Study, 20: 251-258.

BAYLISS, M.J. (1985) Much Grunting in the Marsh. BTO News 138: 8-9.

BAYLISS, M. (1993) Cuckoo/Reed Warbler Survey 1983-92. Birds of Oxfordshire for 1992, 40-47.

BEAVEN, L.P.B., LEECH, D.I., SHAWYER, C.R., BALMER, D.E. & CRICK, H.Q.P. (2002) The BTO Barn Owl Monitoring Programme: 2nd Report: Second Year 2001. BTO Research Report No. 294. BTO, Thetford.

BERRY, R. & BIBBY, C.J. (1981) A breeding study of Nightjars. Brit. Birds 74: 161-9.

BIBBY, C.J. (1973) The Red-backed Shrike: a vanishing British species. Bird Study, 20: 103-110.

BIBBY, C.J. (1978) Some breeding statistics of Reed and Sedge Warblers. Bird Study, 25: 207-222.

BIBBY, C.J. (1979) Breeding biology of the Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata in England. Ibis, 121: 41-52.

BLAND, R.L. (1994) The decline of the Song Thrush. Avon Bird Report 1993, 110-114.

BOWEY, K. (1999) Sedge warblers nesting in rape crops. British Birds, 92: 365-372

(BRADBURY, A. (1999) Assessment of the impact of climatic variation on the breeding success of the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo in the UK. BSc Thesis, Bristol University).

BRIGGS, K (1983) The distribution and reproduction of Ringed Plovers breeding coastally and inland in North-West England. Bird Study 30: 222-8.

BRIGGS, K.B. (1988) Nest record cards 1987. Birds of Lancaster & District, 29: 35-37.

BROOKE, M. de L. & DAVIES, N.B. (1987) Recent changes in host usage by Cuckoos Cuculus canorus in Britain. J. Anim. Ecol, 56: 873-883.

BROWN, R.G.B. (1967) Breeding success and population growth in a colony of Herring and Lesser Black-headed Gulls, Larus argentatus and fuscus. Ibis, 109: 502-515.

BROWN, L. (1976) Birds of Prey. Collins, London.

BROWN, A.F., CRICK, H.Q.P. & STILLMAN, R.A. (1995) The distribution, numbers and breeding ecology of Twite Acanthis flavirostris in the South Pennines of England. Bird Study, 42: 107-121.

BRUCKER, J.W., GOSLER, A.G. & HERYET, A.R. (eds) (1992) Birds of Oxfordshire. Pisces, Newbury.

BUNN, D.S., WARBURTON, A.B. & WILSON, R.D.S. (1982) The Barn Owl. T & A D Poyser, Calton.

BURTON, J.F. and MAYER-GROSS, H. (1965) The first 25 years of the Nest Record Scheme. Bird Study, 12: 100-107.

BURTON, N.H.K., WATTS, P.N., CRICK, H.Q.P. & CARTER, N. (1996) The effects of pre-harvesting operations on birds nesting in Oilseed Rape Brassica napus. BTO Research Report No. 171. BTO, Thetford. (34pp)

BURTON, N.H.K. (1997) A Review of the Status and Population Trends of Bird Species on the Short and Middle UK Biodiversity Steering Group Lists. BTO Research Report No. 191. BTO, Thetford.

CAMPBELL, B. (1960) The Mute Swan Census in England and Wales 1955-56. Bird Study, 7: 208-223.

CANNELL, M.G.R., SPARKS, T.H., PALUTIKOF, J.P., HULME, M., SUBAK, S., MARSH, T.J., GEORGE, D.G., PARR, T.W., RENNIE, S.C., AGNEW, M.D., CRICK, H.P.Q., LISTER, D.H., WOIWOD, I.P., POTTS, J.M. & LOXTON, R.G. (1998) Indicators of climate change in the UK. ITE, Penicuik. (135pp)

CANNELL, M.G.R., PALUTIKOF, J.P. & SPARKS, T.H. (1999) Indicators of climate change in the UK. DETR, London.

CHAMBERLAIN, D. E. & CRICK, H.Q.P. (1999) Population declines and reproductive performance of Skylarks Alauda arvensis in different regions and habitats of the United Kingdom. Ibis, 141: 38-51.

CHAMBERLAIN, D.E. (2001) Habitat associations and trends in reproductive performance of skylarks Alauda arvensis breeding in the uplands of the UK. In The ecology and conservation of skylarks Alauda arvensis (eds P.F. Donald & J.A. Vickery) pp.25-39. RSPB, Sandy.

CHEVERTON, J.M. (1989) Breeding birds of the Isle of Wight. Isle of Wight Natural History Society and Archaeological Society, Newport.

CLARKE, R. (1997) Montagu’s Harrier. Arlequin Press, Chelmsford.

CORNULIER, T., ELSTON, D.A., ARCESE, P., BENTON, T.G., DOUGLAS, D.J.T., LAMBIN, X., REID, J., ROBINSON, R.A. & SUTHERLAND, W.J. (2009) Estimating the annual number of breeding attempts from breeding dates using mixture models. Ecology Letters, 12: 1184-1193

COULSON, J.C. (1956) Mortality and egg-production of the Meadow Pipit with special reference to altitude. Bird Study, 3: 119-132.

CRAMP, S. (1955) The breeding of the Willow Warbler. Bird Study, 2: 121-135.

CRAMP, S. (1963) Toxic chemicals and birds of Prey. Brit. Birds, 56: 124-139.

CRAMP, S. et al. (1980) BWP Vol 2, O.U.P., Oxford.

CRAMP, S. & OLNEY, P.J.S. (1967) The sixth report of the Joint Committee of the British Trust for Ornithology and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds on Toxic Chemicals. RSPB, Sandy.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1992) A bird-habitat coding system for use in Britain and Ireland incorporating aspects of land-management and human activity. Bird Study 39: 1-12.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1992) Trends in the Breeding Performance of Golden Plover in Britain. BTO Res. Rep. No 76. BTO, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1993) Trends in breeding success of Merlins Falco columbarius in Britain from 1937-89. In Biology and conservation of small falcons (eds Nicholls, M.K. & Clarke, R.) pp.30-38. Hawk and Owl Trust, London.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1993) Studies of moorland birds: Merlin and Golden Plover. In Britain's Birds in 1990-91 (eds Andrews, J. & Carter, S.P.) pp.121-123. JNCC/BTO, Peterborough.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1995) The strange case of the Whistling Oofoo. What are runt eggs? British Birds, 88: 169-180.

CRICK, H.Q.P. (1997) Long-term trends in corn bunting Miliaria calandra productivity in Britain. In The ecology and conservation of corn buntings Miliaria calandra (eds Donald, P.F. & Arbischer, N.J.) pp.52-64. JNCC, Peterborough.

CRICK, H.Q.P. & BAILLIE, S.R. (1996) A Review of the BTO’s Nest Record Scheme. Its value to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee and Country Agencies, and its methodology.
BTO Res. Rep. 159. BTO, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P., DONALD, P.F. & GREENWOOD, J.J.D. (1991) Population processes in some British seed-eating birds. BTO Res. Rep. 80. BTO, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P., DUDLEY, C., EVANS, A.D. & SMITH, K.W. (1994) Causes of nest failure among buntings in the U.K. Bird Study 41: 88-94.

CRICK, H.Q.P., DUDLEY, C., GLUE, D.E. & FISHER, S. (1991) The Nest Record Scheme in 1989. In Britain's Birds in 1989-90 (eds Stroud, D.A & Glue, D.E.) pp.62-67. BTO/NCC, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P., GIBBONS, D.W. & MAGRATH, R.D. (1993) Seasonal changes in clutch size in British Birds. J. Anim. Ecol. 62: 263-273.

CRICK, H.Q.P., PEACH, W.J., DUDLEY, C., GLUE, D.E. & TURNER, J. (1993) Breeding performance in 1990. In Britain's Birds in 1990-91 (eds Andrews, J. & Carter, S.P.) pp.101-105. JNCC/BTO, Peterborough.

CRICK, H.Q.P., PEACH, W.J., DUDLEY, C., & GLUE, D.E. (1995) Breeding performance in 1991. In Britain’s Birds in 1991-1992 (ed Carter, S.P.) pp.28-37. BTO/JNCC, Thetford.

CRICK , H.Q.P., BAILLIE, S.R., BALMER, D.E., BASHFORD, R.I., DUDLEY, C., GLUE, D.E., GREGORY, R.D., MARCHANT, J.H., PEACH, W.J. & WILSON, A.M. (1997). Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status (1971-1995). BTO Research Report No. 187. BTO, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P., DUDLEY, C., GLUE, D.E., THOMSON, D.L. (1997) UK birds are laying eggs earlier. Nature, 388: 526.

CRICK, H.Q.P., BAILLIE, S.R., BALMER, D.E., BASHFORD, R.I., BEAVEN, L.P., DUDLEY, C., GLUE, D.E., GREGORY, R.D., MARCHANT, J.H., PEACH, W.J. & WILSON, A.M. (1998) Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status (1972-1996). BTO Research Report No. 198. BTO, Thetford.

CRICK, H.Q.P. & SPARKS, T.H. (1999) Climate change related to egg-laying trends. Nature,
399: 423-424.

(CROWLE, A.J.W. (1992) Factors affecting the Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus. Unpbl. Undergraduate Thesis, Oxford Polytechnic.)

DAVIES, A.K. (1985) The British Mandarins. BTO News 136:12.

DAVIES, A.K. (1988) The distribution and status of the Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata in Britain. Bird Study 35: 203-8.

DAVIES, N.B. & BROOKE, M de L. (1989) An experimental study of co-evolution between Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. II. Host egg markings, chick discrimination and general discussion. J. Anim. Ecol. 58: 225-236.

DAVIS, P. (1989) Protecting Nests of Passerine Birds. BTO News 162:16.

DOBINSON, H.M. and RICHARDS, A.J. (1964) The effects of the severe winter of 1962/3 on birds in Britain. Brit. Birds, 57: 373-434.

DONALD, P.F., BUCKINGHAM, D.L., MUIRHEAD, L.B., EVANS, A.D., KIRBY, W.B. & SCHMITT, S.I.A. (2001) Factors affecting clutch size, hatching rates and partial brood losses in skylark Alauda arvensis nests on lowland farmland. In The ecology and conservation of skylarks Alauda arvensis (eds P.F. Donald & J.A. Vickery) pp.63-77. RSPB, Sandy.

DU FEU, C. (1991) Treswell Wood Nestbox Project. Birds of Nottinghamshire 1990: 58-63.

DYDA, J. (1994) Nest desertion and predation in open-nesting songbirds. Is there a human influence? BSc Thesis, UCNW, Bangor.

EAST, M. (1980-1?) The breeding ecology of the Robin in Britain. Unpbl MS.

EVANS, A. (1997) Cirl buntings in Britain. British Birds, 90: 267-282.

EVANS, A.D., SMITH, K.W., BUCKINGHAM, D.L. & EVANS, J. (1997) Seasonal variation in breeding performance and nestling diet of Cirl Buntings Emberiza cirlus in England. Bird Study, 44: 66-79.

FERRY, C. (1955) Sur la reproduction de Charadrius hiaticula en Bretagne, Alauda, 23: 81-96.

FISHER, J. and PETERSON, R.T. (1964) The World of Birds. London.

FIUCZYNSKI, D. & NETHERSOLE-THOMPSON, D (1980) Hobby studies in England and Germany. Brit. Birds, 73:275-295.

FLEGG, J.J.M. (1973) A study of Treecreepers. Bird Study 20:287-302.

FLEGG, J.J.M. and GLUE, D.E. (1973) A Water Rail Study. Bird Study, 20: 69-70.

FLEGG, J.J.M. & GLUE, D.E.G. (1975) The nesting of the Ring Ouzel. Bird Study 22: 1-8.

FOX, A.D. & MEEK, E.R. (1993) History of the Northern Pintail breeding in Britain and Ireland. Brit. Birds, 86: 151-162.

FREEMAN, S. (1988?) To investigate the relationship between the egg-laying date of the Chaffinch and environmental factors. Unpbl. MS.

FREEMAN, S. (1990) Statistical analysis of avian breeding and survival. Unpbl. PhD thesis. University of Kent, Canterbury.

FULLER, R.F. (1982) Bird Habitats in Britain. T & AD Poyser, Calton.

FULLER, R.J. & CRICK, H.Q.P (1992) Broad-scale patterns in geographical and habitat distribution of migrant and resident passerines in Britain and Ireland. Ibis 134 (Suppl. 1): 14-20.

FULLER, R.J. and GLUE, D.E. (1977) The breeding biology of the Stonechat and Whinchat. Bird Study, 24: 215-228.

GARNER, D.J. & MILNE, B.S. (1998) A study of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus using wicker nesting baskets. Bird Study, 45: 62-67.

GARSON, P.J. (1980) The breeding ecology of the Wren in Britain. Bird Study, 27: 63-72.

GILBERT, M.L. (1980) Breeding of Dippers. Unpbl B.Sc. Project Report, Royal Holloway College, University of London.

GINN, H.B. (1969) The use of annual ringing and nest record card totals as indicators of population levels. Bird Study, 16: 210-247.

GLUE, D.E. (1977) Breeding biology of Long-eared Owls. Brit. Birds, 70: 318-331.

GLUE, D.E. (1985) Plight of the Nightjar. BTO News 140:6.

GLUE, D.E. (1989) Impact of high temperatures and low rainfall on Britain's breeding birds during 1989. J. Met, 14: 373-375.

GLUE, D.E. (1990) Breeding biology of the Grasshopper Warbler in Britain. Brit. Birds 83: 131-145.

GLUE, D.E. (1990) Little Grebes rearing three broods in Buckinghamshire. Brit. Birds 83(7): 278-9.

GLUE, D.E. (1991) Impact of adverse weather conditions on Britain's wintering and breeding birds in 1991. J. Met. 16 (161): 221-3.

GLUE, D.E. (1993) Impact of mild 1992/93 winter weather and increased rainfall on Britain's breeding birds in 1993. J.Met. 18: 277-280.

GLUE, D.E. (1995) Impact of mild 1993/94 winter weather and cool damp spring on Britain’s breeding birds in 1994. J.Met. 20: 17-19

GLUE, D.E. (1995) The combined influences of the mild 1994/1995 winter and protracted hot dry summer on Britain’s breeding birds in 1995. J.Met. 20: 339-342.

GLUE, D.E. (1996) Impact of the cold 1995/96 winter, cool late spring and hot dry summer on Britain’s breeding birds. J. Met. 21: 399-403.

[GLUE, D.E. (1993) The Adaptable Shelduck. Wildfowl and Wetlands, 108: 12-13.]

[GLUE, D.E. (1994) Rise and Fall. Birdwatch (November 1994): 4-7.

GLUE, D.E. & BOSWELL, T. (1994) Comparative nesting ecology of the three British breeding woodpeckers. Brit. Birds 87: 253-269.

GLUE, D.E. and MORGAN, R. (1972) Cuckoo hosts in British habitats. Bird Study, 19: 187-192.

GLUE, D.E. and MORGAN, R. (1974) Breeding statistics and movements of the Stone Curlew. Bird Study, 21: 21-28.

GLUE, D.E. and SCOTT, D. (1980) Breeding biology of the Little Owl. Brit. Birds, 73: 167-180.

GOOCH, S., BAILLIE, S.R. & BIRKHEAD, T.R. (1991) Magpie Pica pica and songbird populations. Retrospective investigation of trends in population density and breeding success. J. Appl. Ecol. 28: 1068-86.

GOODACRE, M.J. and LACK, D. (1959) Early breeding in 1957. Brit. Birds, 52: 74-83.

GOODBODY, I.M. (1955) The breeding of the Black-headed Gull. Bird Study, 2: 192-199.

GOODFELLOW, P. (1992) Projects with Birds. Crowood Press, Marlborough.

GRANT, K., PEARCE, G. & RAMSDEN, D. (1994) The 1993 Barn Owl Survey of Devon: A joint project by the Barn Owl Trust and the DBWPS. Devon Birds 47: 31-39.

GREEN, R.E. (1989) Transformation of crude proportions of nests that are successful for comparison with Mayfield estimates of nest success. Ibis 131: 305-6.

GREENWOOD, J.J.D., BAILLIE, S.R. & CRICK, H.Q.P. (1994) Long-term studies and Monitoring of Bird Populations. In Long-term Experiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences (eds R.A. Leigh & A.E. Johnston) pp.343-364. CAB International, Wallingford.

GREENWOOD, J.J.D, BAILLIE, S.R., CRICK, H.Q.P., MARCHANT, J.H. & PEACH, W.J. (1993) Integrated population monitoring: detecting the effects of diverse changes. In Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change (eds R.W. Furness & J.J.D. Greenwood) pp.267- 342. Chapman & Hall, London.

GREENWOOD, J.J.D., CRICK, H.Q.P. & DONALD, P.F. (1993) Changes in reproductive performance of some seed-eating birds, 1962-89. In Britain's Birds in 1990-91 (eds Andrews, J. & Carter, S.P.) pp.82-85. JNCC/BTO, Peterborough.

HARRISON, C.J.O. (1964) Instructions to young Ornithologists, V, Bird Nests and Eggs. London.

HENDERSON, I.G., MCCULLOCH, M.N. & CRICK, H.Q.P. (1993) Barn Owl productivity and survival in relation to the use of second-generation rodenticides in 1988-90. BTO Res. Rep. 106: 1-20. BTO, Thetford.

(HEYWOOD, S. (1976) The comparative ecology of the Coot Fulica atra L. and the Moorhen Gallinula chloropus L.. Unpbl. B.A. thesis, York University.

HILL, D.A. (1988) The Pheasant. BSP, London. (Chapter 5).

HOLYOAK, D.T. (1967) Breeding biology of the Corvidae. Bird Study, 14: 153-168.

HOLYOAK, D.T. & RATCLIFFE, D.A. (1968) The distribution of the Raven in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study 15: 191-7.

(HOODLESS, A. (1994) The breeding of the Woodcock Scolopax rusticola in Britain – An analysis of nest record cards. The Game Conservancy Trust, Fordingbridge.)

HOODLESS, A. (1995) Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax Rusticola. British Birds, 88: 578-592.

HOODLESS, A N & COULSON, J.C. (1998) Breeding biology of the Woodcock Scolopax Rusticola in Britian. Bird Study, 45: 195-204.

HUDSON, R. (1965) The spread of the Collared Dove in Britain and Ireland. British Birds 58: 105-139.

HUXLEY, C.R. & WOOD, N.A. (1976) Aspects of the breeding of the Moorhen in Britain. Bird Study 23: 1-10.

INGLIS, I.R. (1993) Woodpigeon. In The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland 1988-91 (eds D.W. Gibbons, J.B. Reid & R.A. Chapman) pp.236-237. Poyser, London.


INGLIS, I.R., ISAACSON, A.J. & THEARLE, R.J.P. (1994) Long-term changes in the breeding biology of the woodpigeon Columba palumbus in eastern England. Ecography 17: 182-188.

(JARDINE, D.C. (1988) Differences in Aspects of the Breeding Biology of Scottish and English Twite. Unpbl. MS.)

JENKINS, R.K.B. (1999) The breeding biology of the Water Rail Rallus aquaticus in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study, 46: 305-308.

(JOHNSON, P.N. (1987) A comparative study of the breeding ecology of Tawny Owls Strix aluco sylvatica (Shaw) in different environments. Unpbl BA (Hons) Thesis, Bedford College of Higher Education.

(JORDAN, P.J. (1994) Long-term trends in clutch size of the Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, (1962-1989) - is the Moorhen on the verge of a decline? Unpbl. BSc Thesis. Oxford Brookes University.

(KELSEY, M.G. (1987) The ecology of Marsh Warblers. Unpbl. D Phil Thesis. University of Oxford.

KELSEY, M.G. (1989) Breeding biology of Marsh Warblers Acrocephalus palustris in Worcestershire: a comparison with European populations. Bird Study 36: 205-10.

KELSEY, M.G., GREEN, G.H., GARNETT, M.C. & HAYMAN, P.V. (1989) Marsh Warblers in Britain. Brit. Birds 82: 239-56.

KUITUNEN, M. (1987) Seasonal and geographical variation in the clutch size of the Common Treecreeper Certhia familiaris. Ornis Fenn. 64: 125-136.

LACK, D. (1946) Clutch and brood size in the Robin. Brit. Birds, 39: 98-109, 130-135.

LACK, D. (1948) Further notes on clutch size in the Robin. Brit. Birds, 41: 98-109, 130-137.

LACK, D. (1948) Natural selection and family size in the Starling. Evolution, 2: 95-110.

LACK, D. (1955) British tits (Parus spp.) in nesting boxes. Ardea, 43: 50-84.

LACK, D. (1955) Summary report on nesting tits. Bird Study, 2: 199-201.

LACK, D. (1958) A quantitative breeding study of British Tits. Ardea, 46: 92-124.

LACK, D. (1963) Cuckoo hosts in England. Bird Study, 10: 185-202.

LACK, D. (1966) Populations Studies of Birds. Clarendon, Oxford. (Bullfinch p 189).

LACK, D. and E. (1958) The nesting of the Long-tailed Tit. Bird Study, 5: 1-19.

LACK, E. (1950) Breeding season and clutch-size of the Wood Warbler. Ibis, 92: 95-98.

LACK, P.C. (1988) Nesting success of birds in trees and shrubs in farmland hedges. Ecol. Bulls 39: 191-193.

LEADER, P. & MELLING, J. (1990) The breeding population of Tree Sparrows at Rye Meads. Rye Meads Ringing Group Report 11: 56-58.

LINDHOLM. A.K. (1999) Brood parasitism by the cuckoo on patchy reed warbler populations in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecol., 68: 293-309.

LISTER, M.D. (1964) The Lapwing habitat enquiry, 1960-61. Bird Study, 11: 128-147.

LOCKIE, J.D. (1955) The breeding and feeding of Jackdaws and Rooks with notes on Carrion Crows and other Corvidae. Ibis, 97: 341-69.

LOXTON, R.G. & SILCOCKS, A. (1997) The rise and fall of Bardsey Blackbirds. Bardsey Observatory Report no 40:1996: 76-99.

MASON, C.F. (1976) Breeding biology of the Sylvia warblers. Bird Study, 23: 213-232.

MASON, C.F. and LYCZYSKI, F. (1980) Breeding biology of Pied and Yellow Wagtails. Bird Study, 27: 1-10.

MASON, C.F. and MACDONALD, S.M. (1976) Aspects of the breeding biology of the Snipe. Bird Study, 23: 33-38.

MAYER-GROSS, H. (1964) Late nesting in Britain in 1960. Brit. Birds, 57: 102-118.

MAYER-GROSS, H. (1965) Hatching success of Blue Tits, Song Thrush and Chaffinch in recent years. Bird Study, 12: 253-255.

MAYER-GROSS, H. (1970) Nest Record Scheme. B.T.O. Guide 12: 1-36.

MAYER-GROSS, H., CRICK, H.Q.P. and GREENWOOD, J.J.D. (1997) The effect of observers visiting the nests of passerines: an experimental study. Bird Study, 44: 53-65

MILLS, D.H. (1962) The Goosander and Red-breasted Merganser in Scotland. Wildfowl Trust 13th Annual Report: 79-91.

MONK, J.F. (1954) The breeding biology of the Greenfinch. Bird Study, 1: 2-24.

MORGAN, R.A. (1979) Sand Martin nest record cards. Bird Study, 26: 129-132.

MORGAN, R. (1982) The breeding biology of the Nightingale Luscinia mergarhynchos in Britain. Bird Study, 29: 67-72.

MORGAN, R.A. (1982) Breeding seasons of some British waders. BTO Res. Rep. No 7. BTO, Tring.

MORGAN, R.A. (1985) Nest recording. In A Dictionary of Birds (eds B. Campbell & E. Lack): 391. T. & A.D. Poyser, Calton.

MORGAN, R.A. and DAVIES, P.G. (1977) The numbers of broods reared by Stonechats in Surrey. Bird Study, 24: 229-232.

MORGAN, R. and GLUE, D.E. (1977) Breeding, mortality and movements of Kingfishers. Bird Study, 24: 15-24.

MORGAN, R.A. & GLUE, D.E. (1981) Breeding survey of Black Redstarts in Britain 1977. Bird Study 28: 163-8.

MORGAN, R. and SHORTEN, M. (1974) Breeding of the Woodcock in Britain. Bird Study, 21: 193-199.

MOSS, D. & MOSS, G.M. (1993) Breeding biology of the Little Grebe Tachybaptis ruficollis in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study 40: 107-114.

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