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BTO Blueline
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BTO Blueline
Falco tinnunculus
Kestrel © Tommy Holden

• Population

• Productivity

• Additional

Conservation listings
Europe: SPEC category 3, declining
UK: amber (25–50% population decline)
Long-term trend
England: fluctuating, with no long-term trend
UK population size
36,800 pairs in 2000 (1988–91 Atlas estimate updated using CBC/BBS trend: BiE04, APEP06)
Status summary
Kestrels had recovered from the lethal and sublethal effects of organochlorine pesticides by the mid 1970s, the recovery probably driven by improving nesting success, but subsequently entered a decline which has been linked to the effects of agricultural intensification on farmland habitats and their populations of small mammals (Gibbons et al. 1993). Since the mid 1980s, the English population has fluctuated without a long-term trend being apparent. In Scotland, however, there has been a significant decline since 1994. There has been substantial increase in the number of fledglings per breeding attempt; brood sizes increased up to 1990, but a subsequent decline has resulted in the inclusion of Kestrel in the NRS concern list (Leech & Barimore 2008). Despite its decline since the mid 1970s, the Kestrel breeds at high density in mixed farmland across much of England, suggesting that the British population may number more than 50,000 pairs (Clements 2008). A moderate decrease has been recorded in the Republic of Ireland since 1998 (Crowe et al. 2010).
CBC/BBS England graph

1967-2008: 4% (confidence interval -29% to 48%)

Population changes in detail

 Demographic trends

Fledglings per breeding attempt graph
Laying date graph
More on demographic trends
Additional information

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This report should be cited as: Baillie, S.R., Marchant, J.H., Leech, D.I., Renwick, A.R., Joys, A.C., Noble, D.G., Barimore, C., Conway, G.J., Downie, I.S., Risely, K. & Robinson, R.A. (2010). Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status 2010. BTO Research Report No. 565. BTO, Thetford. (http://www.bto.org/birdtrends)

Pages maintained by Iain Downie, Mandy T Andrews and Laura Smith: Last updated 14.10.2010