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BTO Blueline
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BTO Blueline
Lullula arborea

Woodlark © Derek Belsey

Conservation listings

Europe: SPEC category 2, vulnerable
UK: Red (>50% distribution decline)

Long-term trend
UK: increase
Status summary
This species is too rare and restricted for annual population changes to be monitored by BTO observers. Sitters et al. (1996) report that the population increased from c.250 pairs in 1986 to c.600 pairs in 1993, probably helped by recent mild winters and increased habitat availability due to storm damage in plantations, forest restocking, and heathland management. A new national survey in 1997 showed that the population had increased further to c.1550 pairs (Wotton & Gillings 2000; see http://www.bto.org/research/archive/arch3.htm). Nest failure rates at the egg stage (17 days, comprising 14 days incubation and 3 days laying) have declined, at least between 1975 and 1999, and clutch sizes have increased.
Annual breeding population changes for this species
are not currently monitored by BTO
Table of productivity information for Woodlark
Variable Period
Years Mean
Trend Predicted
in first year
in last year
Change Comment
Clutch size 33 1968-2001 15 Curvilinear 3.24 eggs 3.6 eggs 0.36 eggs Small sample
Brood size 33 1968-2001 24 None       Small sample
Daily failure rate (eggs) 33 1968-2001 18 Linear decline 0.0409 nests/day 0.0137 nests/day -0.0272 nests/day Small sample
Daily failure rate (chicks) 33 1968-2001 25 None       Small sample
Laying date 33 1968-2001 17 None       Small sample
Clutch size graph
Brood size graph
Egg nest failure graph
Chick nest failure graph

Laying date graph


Insufficient data on CES
available for this species


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This report should be cited as:
Crick, H.Q.P., Marchant, J.H., Noble, D.G., Baillie, S.R., Balmer, D.E., Beaven, L.P., Coombes, R.H.,
Downie, I.S., Freeman, S.N., Joys, A.C., Leech, D.I., Raven, M.J., Robinson, R.A. and Thewlis, R.M. (2004)
Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status 2003.
BTO Research Report No. 353. BTO, Thetford. (http://www.bto.org/birdtrends2003)

Pages maintained by Susan Waghorn and Iain Downie: Last updated 16 February, 2009