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BTO Blueline
WILLOW TIT
Parus montanus
Willow Tit © Rob Robinson
Conservation listings

Europe: no SPEC category, (secure)
UK: Red (>50% population decline)

Long-term trend
UK, England: rapid decline
Status summary
Willow Tits have been in decline since the mid 1970s. The continuing decline in the CBC/BBS index through the 1990s, following a brief period of stability during the 1980s, is replicated in the CES abundance trend. The UK conservation listing has recently been upgraded from Amber to Red. The species is extinct in an increasing number of former haunts, and appears to have withdrawn to certain preferred wet woodland habitats. The decline is unlikely to be due to nest predation (G.M. Siriwardena, unpubl.). Candidate causes include reductions in the availability of dead wood, woodland drainage, and reductions in the woodland shrub layer due to overgrazing by deer (Vanhinsbergh et al. 2001, Perrins 2003).
 
CBC/BBS UK graph
 
Table of population changes for Willow Tit
Source Period
(yrs)
Years Plots
(n)
Change
(%)
Lower
limit
Upper
limit
Alert Comment
CBC/BBS UK 33 1967-2000 42 -75 -89 -55 >50  
  25 1975-2000 44 -81 -90 -71 >50  
  10 1990-2000 54 -66 -78 -51 >50  
  5 1995-2000 74 -45 -59 -32 >25  
CBC/BBS England 33 1967-2000 40 -73 -90 -53 >50  
  25 1975-2000 41 -81 -93 -70 >50  
  10 1990-2000 49 -64 -78 -53 >50  
  5 1995-2000 66 -42 -57 -31 >25  
CES adults 17 1984-2001 23 -51 . . [>50]  
  10 1991-2001 23 -51 . . [>50]  
  5 1996-2001 20 -36 . . [>25]  
CES juveniles 17 1984-2001 32 -41 . . [>25*]  
  10 1991-2001 33 -52 . . [>50*]  
  5 1996-2001 27 -36 . . [>25*]  
BBS UK 8 1994-2002 55 -72 -81 -59 (>50)  
BBS England 8 1994-2002 48 -71 -81 -56 (>50)  
BBS acknowledgement
 
CBC/BBS England graph
CES adult abundance graph
CES juvenile abundance graph
BBS UK graph
BBS England graph
 
Table of productivity information for Willow Tit
Variable Period
(yrs)
Years Mean
annual
sample
Trend Predicted
in first year
Predicted
in last year
Change Comment
Clutch size 33 1968-2001 2 None       Small sample
Brood size 33 1968-2001 6 None       Small sample
Daily failure rate (eggs) 33 1968-2001 4 None       Small sample
Daily failure rate (chicks) 33 1968-2001 5 None       Small sample
Laying date 33 1968-2001 2 None       Small sample
Percentage juveniles (CES) 17 1984-2001 36 Smoothed trend 109 productivity index 101 productivity index -8%  
Percentage juveniles (CES) 10 1991-2001 37 Smoothed trend 104 productivity index 101 productivity index -4%  
Percentage juveniles (CES) 5 1996-2001 31 Smoothed trend 100 productivity index 101 productivity index 0%  
 

 

Insufficient data on clutch size
available for this species

 

 

Insufficient data on brood size
available for this species

 

 

Insufficient data on nest failure
available for this species

 

 

Insufficient data on nestling failure available for this species

 

Insufficient data on laying date
available for this species
CES productivity graph
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This report should be cited as:
Crick, H.Q.P., Marchant, J.H., Noble, D.G., Baillie, S.R., Balmer, D.E., Beaven, L.P., Coombes, R.H.,
Downie, I.S., Freeman, S.N., Joys, A.C., Leech, D.I., Raven, M.J., Robinson, R.A. and Thewlis, R.M. (2004)
Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: their conservation status 2003.
BTO Research Report No. 353. BTO, Thetford. (http://www.bto.org/birdtrends2003)

Pages maintained by Susan Waghorn and Iain Downie: Last updated 16 February, 2009